DOI

1

Stratified shear flow instabilities at large Richardson numbers - Alexakis, Alexandros

PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 21, (2009)

Abstract : Numerical simulations of stratified shear flow instabilities are performed in two dimensions in the Boussinesq limit. The density variation length scale is chosen to be four times smaller than the velocity variation length scale so that Holmboe or Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable modes are present depending on the choice of the global Richardson number Ri. Three different values of Ri were examined Ri=0.2, 2, and 20. The flows for the three examined values are all unstable due to different modes, namely: the Kelvin-Helmholtz mode for Ri=0.2, the first Holmboe mode for Ri=2, and the second Holmboe mode for Ri=20 that has been discovered recently and this is the first time that it is examined in the nonlinear stage. It is found that the amplitude of the velocity perturbation of the second Holmboe mode at the nonlinear stage is smaller but comparable to first Holmboe mode. The increase in the potential energy, however, due to the second Holmboe modes is greater than that of the first mode. The Kelvin-Helmholtz mode is larger by two orders of magnitude in kinetic energy than the Holmboe modes and about ten times larger in potential energy than the Holmboe modes. The effect of increasing Prandtl number is also investigated, and a weak dependence on the Prandtl number is observed. The results in this paper suggest that although mixing is suppressed at large Richardson numbers it is not negligible, and turbulent mixing processes in strongly stratified environments cannot be excluded.

PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 21, (2009)

LPS

Abstract : Numerical simulations of stratified shear flow instabilities are performed in two dimensions in the Boussinesq limit. The density variation length scale is chosen to be four times smaller than the velocity variation length scale so that Holmboe or Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable modes are present depending on the choice of the global Richardson number Ri. Three different values of Ri were examined Ri=0.2, 2, and 20. The flows for the three examined values are all unstable due to different modes, namely: the Kelvin-Helmholtz mode for Ri=0.2, the first Holmboe mode for Ri=2, and the second Holmboe mode for Ri=20 that has been discovered recently and this is the first time that it is examined in the nonlinear stage. It is found that the amplitude of the velocity perturbation of the second Holmboe mode at the nonlinear stage is smaller but comparable to first Holmboe mode. The increase in the potential energy, however, due to the second Holmboe modes is greater than that of the first mode. The Kelvin-Helmholtz mode is larger by two orders of magnitude in kinetic energy than the Holmboe modes and about ten times larger in potential energy than the Holmboe modes. The effect of increasing Prandtl number is also investigated, and a weak dependence on the Prandtl number is observed. The results in this paper suggest that although mixing is suppressed at large Richardson numbers it is not negligible, and turbulent mixing processes in strongly stratified environments cannot be excluded.

DOI

2

Planar bifurcation subject to multiplicative noise: Role of symmetry - Alexakis, Alexandros and Petrelis, Francois

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 80, (2009)

Abstract : The effect of multiplicative noise on a system described by two modes close to a bifurcation point is investigated. The bifurcation is assumed stationary and noise acts as random coupling between these modes. An analytic formula that predicts the onset of instability is derived, and the domain of existence of on-off intermittency is calculated based on an eigenvalue problem. This approach, confirmed by numerical simulations of the Langevin equations, allows quantifying the possible effects of the noise. The stability and the on-off behavior are shown to be very sensitive to deviations of the deterministic system from the case where both modes grow with equal rate and the system displays a continuous symmetry associated to rotation in phase space. In general, a noise term that breaks this continuous symmetry will increase the domain of instability of the system while a noise term that preserves the symmetry reduces the domain of instability.

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 80, (2009)

LPS

Abstract : The effect of multiplicative noise on a system described by two modes close to a bifurcation point is investigated. The bifurcation is assumed stationary and noise acts as random coupling between these modes. An analytic formula that predicts the onset of instability is derived, and the domain of existence of on-off intermittency is calculated based on an eigenvalue problem. This approach, confirmed by numerical simulations of the Langevin equations, allows quantifying the possible effects of the noise. The stability and the on-off behavior are shown to be very sensitive to deviations of the deterministic system from the case where both modes grow with equal rate and the system displays a continuous symmetry associated to rotation in phase space. In general, a noise term that breaks this continuous symmetry will increase the domain of instability of the system while a noise term that preserves the symmetry reduces the domain of instability.