DOI

1

Self-organisation and non-linear dynamics in driven magnetohydrodynamic turbulent flows - Dallas, V. and Alexakis, A.

PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 27, (2015)

Abstract : Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent flows driven by random, large-scale, mechanical and electromagnetic external forces of zero helicities are investigated by means of direct numerical simulations. It is shown that despite the absence of helicities in the forcing, the system is attracted to helical states of large scale condensates that exhibit laminar behaviour despite the large value of the Reynolds numbers examined. We demonstrate that the correlation time of the external forces controls the time spent on these states, i.e., for short correlation times, the system remains in the turbulent state while as the correlation time is increased, the system spends more and more time in the helical states. As a result, time averaged statistics are significantly affected by the time spent on these states. These results have important implications for MHD and turbulence theory and they provide insight into various physical phenomena where condensates transpire. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 27, (2015)

LPS

Abstract : Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent flows driven by random, large-scale, mechanical and electromagnetic external forces of zero helicities are investigated by means of direct numerical simulations. It is shown that despite the absence of helicities in the forcing, the system is attracted to helical states of large scale condensates that exhibit laminar behaviour despite the large value of the Reynolds numbers examined. We demonstrate that the correlation time of the external forces controls the time spent on these states, i.e., for short correlation times, the system remains in the turbulent state while as the correlation time is increased, the system spends more and more time in the helical states. As a result, time averaged statistics are significantly affected by the time spent on these states. These results have important implications for MHD and turbulence theory and they provide insight into various physical phenomena where condensates transpire. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

DOI

2

Structures and dynamics of small scales in decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence - Dallas, V. and Alexakis, A.

PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 25, (2013)

Abstract : The topological and dynamical features of small scales are studied in the context of decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulent flows using direct numerical simulations. Joint probability density functions (PDFs) of the invariants of gradient quantities related to the velocity and the magnetic fields demonstrate that structures and dynamics at the time of maximum dissipation depend on the large scale initial conditions at the examined Reynolds numbers. This is evident in particular from the fact that each flow has a different shape for the joint PDF of the invariants of the velocity gradient in contrast to the universal teardrop shape of hydrodynamic turbulence. The general picture that emerges from the analysis of the invariants is that regions of high vorticity are correlatedwith regions of high strain rate S also in contrast to hydrodynamic turbulent flows. Magnetic strain dominated regions are also well correlated with region of high current density j. Viscous dissipation (proportional to S-2) as well as Ohmic dissipation (proportional to j(2)) resides in regions where strain and rotation are locally almost in balance. The structures related to the velocity gradient possess different characteristics than those associated with the magnetic field gradient with the latter being locally more quasi-two dimensional. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 25, (2013)

LPS

Abstract : The topological and dynamical features of small scales are studied in the context of decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulent flows using direct numerical simulations. Joint probability density functions (PDFs) of the invariants of gradient quantities related to the velocity and the magnetic fields demonstrate that structures and dynamics at the time of maximum dissipation depend on the large scale initial conditions at the examined Reynolds numbers. This is evident in particular from the fact that each flow has a different shape for the joint PDF of the invariants of the velocity gradient in contrast to the universal teardrop shape of hydrodynamic turbulence. The general picture that emerges from the analysis of the invariants is that regions of high vorticity are correlatedwith regions of high strain rate S also in contrast to hydrodynamic turbulent flows. Magnetic strain dominated regions are also well correlated with region of high current density j. Viscous dissipation (proportional to S-2) as well as Ohmic dissipation (proportional to j(2)) resides in regions where strain and rotation are locally almost in balance. The structures related to the velocity gradient possess different characteristics than those associated with the magnetic field gradient with the latter being locally more quasi-two dimensional. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

DOI

3

Stratified shear flow instabilities at large Richardson numbers - Alexakis, Alexandros

PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 21, (2009)

Abstract : Numerical simulations of stratified shear flow instabilities are performed in two dimensions in the Boussinesq limit. The density variation length scale is chosen to be four times smaller than the velocity variation length scale so that Holmboe or Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable modes are present depending on the choice of the global Richardson number Ri. Three different values of Ri were examined Ri=0.2, 2, and 20. The flows for the three examined values are all unstable due to different modes, namely: the Kelvin-Helmholtz mode for Ri=0.2, the first Holmboe mode for Ri=2, and the second Holmboe mode for Ri=20 that has been discovered recently and this is the first time that it is examined in the nonlinear stage. It is found that the amplitude of the velocity perturbation of the second Holmboe mode at the nonlinear stage is smaller but comparable to first Holmboe mode. The increase in the potential energy, however, due to the second Holmboe modes is greater than that of the first mode. The Kelvin-Helmholtz mode is larger by two orders of magnitude in kinetic energy than the Holmboe modes and about ten times larger in potential energy than the Holmboe modes. The effect of increasing Prandtl number is also investigated, and a weak dependence on the Prandtl number is observed. The results in this paper suggest that although mixing is suppressed at large Richardson numbers it is not negligible, and turbulent mixing processes in strongly stratified environments cannot be excluded.

PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 21, (2009)

LPS

Abstract : Numerical simulations of stratified shear flow instabilities are performed in two dimensions in the Boussinesq limit. The density variation length scale is chosen to be four times smaller than the velocity variation length scale so that Holmboe or Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable modes are present depending on the choice of the global Richardson number Ri. Three different values of Ri were examined Ri=0.2, 2, and 20. The flows for the three examined values are all unstable due to different modes, namely: the Kelvin-Helmholtz mode for Ri=0.2, the first Holmboe mode for Ri=2, and the second Holmboe mode for Ri=20 that has been discovered recently and this is the first time that it is examined in the nonlinear stage. It is found that the amplitude of the velocity perturbation of the second Holmboe mode at the nonlinear stage is smaller but comparable to first Holmboe mode. The increase in the potential energy, however, due to the second Holmboe modes is greater than that of the first mode. The Kelvin-Helmholtz mode is larger by two orders of magnitude in kinetic energy than the Holmboe modes and about ten times larger in potential energy than the Holmboe modes. The effect of increasing Prandtl number is also investigated, and a weak dependence on the Prandtl number is observed. The results in this paper suggest that although mixing is suppressed at large Richardson numbers it is not negligible, and turbulent mixing processes in strongly stratified environments cannot be excluded.