laboratoire de physique statistique
 
 
laboratoire de physique statistique

Publications

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2011
Effective line tension and contact angles between membrane domains in biphasic vesicles - Trejo, M. and Ben Amar, M.
EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL E 34 (2011) 
LPS


Abstract : Inhomogeneities in membranes give rise to localized interactions at the interface between domains in two-component vesicles. The corresponding energy is expressed as a line tension between the two phases. In this paper we study the implications of the thickness mismatch between domains which has been experimentally reported to be of order 20-30\% and the conditions under which the induced line tension can destabilize the domains in inhomogeneous vesicles. For asymmetric lipidic membranes we prove an increase of the line tension and the existence of a contact angle. Adsorption of impurities is also examined, our scope being the extension of the Canham-Helfrich model to describe elastic deformations and chemical interactions arising at microscopic scales. This mismatch effect may have important consequences for the stability of very small domains.
Mutual Adaptation of a Faraday Instability Pattern with its Flexible Boundaries in Floating Fluid Drops - Pucci, G. and Fort, E. and Ben Amar, M. and Couder, Y.
PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 106 (2011) 
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Abstract : Hydrodynamic instabilities are usually investigated in confined geometries where the resulting spatiotemporal pattern is constrained by the boundary conditions. Here we study the Faraday instability in domains with flexible boundaries. This is implemented by triggering this instability in floating fluid drops. An interaction of Faraday waves with the shape of the drop is observed, the radiation pressure of the waves exerting a force on the surface tension held boundaries. Two regimes are observed. In the first one there is a coadaptation of the wave pattern with the shape of the domain so that a steady configuration is reached. In the second one the radiation pressure dominates and no steady regime is reached. The drop stretches and ultimately breaks into smaller domains that have a complex dynamics including spontaneous propagation.
Cell motility: A viscous fingering analysis of active gels - Ben Amar, M. and Manyuhina, O. V. and Napoli, G.
EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL PLUS 126 (2011) 
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Abstract : The symmetry breaking of the actin network from radial to longitudinal symmetry has been identified as the major mechanism for keratocytes (fish cells) motility on solid substrate. For strong friction coefficient, the two-dimensional actin flow which includes the polymerisation at the edge and depolymerisation in the bulk can be modelled as a Darcy flow, the cell shape and dynamics being then modelled by standard complex analysis methods. We use the theory of active gels to describe the orientational order of the filaments which varies from the border to the bulk. We show analytically that the reorganisation of the cortex is enough to explain the motility of the cell and find the velocity as a function of the orientation order parameter in the bulk.
Buckling condensation in constrained growth - Dervaux, Julien and Ben Amar, Martine
JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICS AND PHYSICS OF SOLIDS 59538-560 (2011) 
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Abstract : The multiple complexities inherent to living objects have motivated the search for abiotic substitutes, able to mimic some of their relevant physical properties. Hydrogels provide a highly monitorable counterpart and have thus found many applications in medicine and bioengineering. Recently, it has been recognized that their ability to swell could be used to unravel some of the universal physical processes at work during biological growth. However, it is yet unknown how the microscopic distinctions between swelling and biological growth affect macroscopic changes (shape, stresses) induced by volume variations. To answer this question, we focus on a clinically motivated example of growth. Some solid tumors such as melanoma or glioblastoma undergo a shape transition during their evolution. This bifurcation appears when growth is confined at the periphery of the tumor and is concomitant with the transition from the avascular to the vascular stage of the tumor evolution. To model this phenomenon, we consider in this paper the deformation of an elastic ring enclosing a core of different stiffness. When the volume of the outer ring increases, the system develops a periodic instability. We consider two possible descriptions of the volume variation process: either by imposing a homogeneous volumetric strain (biological growth) or through migration of solvent molecules inside a solid network (swelling). For thin rings, both theories are in qualitative agreement. When the interior is soft, we predict the emergence of a large wavelength buckling. Upon increasing the stiffness of the inner disc, the wavelength of the instability decreases until a condensation of the buckles occurs at the free boundary. This short wavelength pattern is independent of the stiffness of the disc and is only limited by the presence of surface tension. For thicker rings, two scenarios emerge. When a volumetric strain is prescribed, compressive stresses accumulate in the vicinity of the core and the deformation localizes itself at the boundary between the disc and the ring. On the other hand, swelling being an instance of stress-modulated growth, elastic stretches near the core saturate and the instability occurs primarily at the free boundary. Besides its implications for the mechanical stability of avascular tumors, this work provides important results concerning layered tissues growth and the role of hydrogels as biological tissues substitutes. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The radial growth phase of malignant melanoma: multi-phase modelling, numerical simulations and linear stability analysis - Ciarletta, P. and Foret, L. and Ben Amar, M.
JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY INTERFACE 8345-368 (2011) 
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Abstract : Cutaneous melanoma is disproportionately lethal despite its relatively low incidence and its potential for cure in the early stages. The aim of this study is to foster understanding of the role of microstructure on the occurrence of morphological changes in diseased skin during melanoma evolution. The authors propose a biomechanical analysis of its radial growth phase, investigating the role of intercellular/stromal connections on the initial stages of epidermis invasion. The radial growth phase of a primary melanoma is modelled within the multi-phase theory of mixtures, reproducing the mechanical behaviour of the skin layers and of the epidermal-dermal junction. The theoretical analysis takes into account those cellular processes that have been experimentally observed to disrupt homeostasis in normal epidermis. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the loss of adhesiveness of the melanoma cells both to the basal laminae, caused by deregulation mechanisms of adherent junctions, and to adjacent keratynocytes, consequent to a downregulation of E-cadherin, are the fundamental biomechanical features for promoting tumour initiation. Finally, the authors provide the mathematical proof of a long wavelength instability of the tumour front during the early stages of melanoma invasion. These results open the perspective to correlate the early morphology of a growing melanoma with the biomechanical characteristics of its micro-environment.
Contour Instabilities in Early Tumor Growth Models - Ben Amar, M. and Chatelain, C. and Ciarletta, P.
PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 106 (2011) 
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Abstract : Recent tumor growth models are often based on the multiphase mixture framework. Using bifurcation theory techniques, we show that such models can give contour instabilities. Restricting to a simplified but realistic version of such models, with an elastic cell-to-cell interaction and a growth rate dependent on diffusing nutrients, we prove that the tumor cell concentration at the border acts as a control parameter inducing a bifurcation with loss of the circular symmetry. We show that the finite wavelength at threshold has the size of the proliferating peritumoral zone. We apply our predictions to melanoma growth since contour instabilities are crucial for early diagnosis. Given the generality of the equations, other relevant applications can be envisaged for solving problems of tissue growth and remodeling.
Shape Transition in Artificial Tumors: From Smooth Buckles to Singular Creases - Dervaux, Julien and Couder, Yves and Guedeau-Boudeville, Marie-Alice and Ben Amar, Martine
PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 107 (2011) 
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Abstract : Using swelling hydrogels, we study the evolution of a thin circular artificial tumor whose growth is confined at the periphery. When the volume of the outer proliferative ring increases, the tumor loses its initial symmetry and bifurcates towards an oscillatory shape. Depending on the geometrical and elastic parameters, we observe either a smooth large-wavelength undulation of the swelling layer or the formation of sharp creases at the free boundary. Our experimental results as well as previous observations from other studies are in very good agreement with a nonlinear poroelastic model.
Emergence of microstructural patterns in skin cancer: a phase separation analysis in a binary mixture - Chatelain, C. and Balois, T. and Ciarletta, P. and Ben Amar, M.
NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS 13 (2011) 
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Abstract : Clinical diagnosis of skin cancers is based on several morphological criteria, among which is the presence of microstructures (e.g. dots and nests) sparsely distributed within the tumour lesion. In this study, we demonstrate that these patterns might originate from a phase separation process. In the absence of cellular proliferation, in fact, a binary mixture model, which is used to represent the mechanical behaviour of skin cancers, contains a cell-cell adhesion parameter that leads to a governing equation of the Cahn-Hilliard type. Taking into account a reaction-diffusion coupling between nutrient consumption and cellular proliferation, we show, with both analytical and numerical investigations, that two-phase models may undergo a spinodal decomposition even when considering mass exchanges between the phases. The cell-nutrient interaction defines a typical diffusive length in the problem, which is found to control the saturation of a growing separated domain, thus stabilizing the microstructural pattern. The distribution and evolution of such emerging cluster morphologies, as predicted by our model, are successfully compared to the clinical observation of microstructural patterns in tumour lesions.
Morphological changes in early melanoma development: Influence of nutrients, growth inhibitors and cell-adhesion mechanisms - Chatelain, Clement and Ciarletta, Pasquale and Ben Amar, Martine
JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL BIOLOGY 29046-59 (2011) 
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Abstract : Current diagnostic methods for skin cancers are based on some morphological characteristics of the pigmented skin lesions, including the geometry of their contour. The aim of this article is to model the early growth of melanoma accounting for the biomechanical characteristics of the tumor microenvironment, and evaluating their influence on the tumor morphology and its evolution. The spatial distribution of tumor cells and diffusing molecules are explicitly described in a three-dimensional multiphase model, which incorporates general cell-to-cell mechanical interactions, a dependence of cell proliferation on contact inhibition, as well as a local diffusion of nutrients and inhibiting molecules. A two-dimensional model is derived in a lubrication limit accounting for the thin geometry of the epidermis. First, the dynamical and spatial properties of planar and circular tumor fronts are studied, with both numerical and analytical techniques. A WIG method is then developed in order to analyze the solution of the governing partial differential equations and to derive the threshold conditions for a contour instability of the growing tumor. A control parameter and a critical wavelength are identified, showing that high cell proliferation, high cell adhesion, large tumor radius and slow tumor growth correlate with the occurrence of a contour instability. Finally, comparing the theoretical results with a large amount of clinical data we show that our predictions describe accurately both the morphology of melanoma observed in vivo and its variations with the tumor growth rate. This study represents a fundamental step to understand more complex microstructural patterns observed during skin tumor growth. Its results have important implications for the improvement of the diagnostic methods for melanoma, possibly driving progress towards a personalized screening. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.