laboratoire de physique statistique
laboratoire de physique statistique


Theoretical analysis of growth or swelling wrinkles on constrained soft slabs - Jia, Fei and Ben Amar, Martine
SOFT MATTER 98216-8226 (2013) 

Abstract : Growth or swelling of soft slabs attached to a rigid substrate generates large compressive stresses at their surfaces. When the stresses exceed a critical value, the smooth surface becomes unstable. For an in-plane isotropic material, a nonlinear three dimensional analysis is employed to ascertain the energy in the buckled state for different modes: stripes, squares and hexagons. When increasing the growth control parameter, we show that hexagonal patterns with a dimple at the center minimize the elastic energy and will be the dominant mode if the mode with minimal energy is the most likely to be observed. The growth of an anisotropic material reinforced by fibers is also considered. The results provide a way to understand surface wrinkling patterns induced by equi-biaxial growth or swelling of elastic layers, with possible applications for micro-patterns fabrication through an appropriate fiber arrangement.
Thin nematic films: Anchoring effects and stripe instability revisited - Manyuhina, O. V. and Ben Amar, M.
PHYSICS LETTERS A 3771003-1011 (2013) 

Abstract : We study theoretically the formation of long-wavelength instability patterns observed at spreading of nematic droplets on liquid substrates. The role of surface-like elastic terms in nematic films of submicron thickness is (re)examined by extending our previous work to hybrid aligned nematics. We identify the upper threshold for the formation of stripes and compare our results with experimental observations. We find that the wavelength and the amplitude of the in-plane director undulations can be related to the small but finite azimuthal anchoring. Within a simplified model we analyse the possibility of non-planar base state below the Barbero-Barberi critical thickness. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Faraday instability in floating liquid lenses: the spontaneous mutual adaptation due to radiation pressure - Pucci, G. and Ben Amar, M. and Couder, Y.

Abstract : Fluid dynamics instabilities are usually investigated in two types of situations, either confined in cells with fixed boundaries, or free to grow in open space. In this article we study the Faraday instability triggered in a floating liquid lens. This is an intermediate situation in which a hydrodynamical instability develops in a domain with flexible boundaries. The instability is observed to be initially disordered with fluctuations of both the wave field and the lens boundaries. However, a slow dynamics takes place, leading to a mutual adaptation so that a steady regime is reached with a stable wave field in a stable lens contour. The most recurrent equilibrium lens shape is elongated with the Faraday wave vector along the main axis. In this self-organized situation an equilibrium is reached between the radiation pressure exerted by Faraday waves on the borders and their capillary response. The elongated shape is obtained theoretically as the exact solution of a Riccati equation with a unique control parameter and compared with the experiment.
Chemotaxis migration and morphogenesis of living colonies - Ben Amar, Martine

Abstract : Development of forms in living organisms is complex and fascinating. Morphogenetic theories that investigate these shapes range from discrete to continuous models, from the variational elasticity to time-dependent fluid approach. Here a mixture model is chosen to describe the mass transport in a morphogenetic gradient: it gives a mathematical description of a mixture involving several constituents in mechanical interactions. This model, which is highly flexible can incorporate many biological processes but also complex interactions between cells as well as between cells and their environment. We use this model to derive a free-boundary problem easier to handle analytically. We solve it in the simplest geometry: an infinite linear front advancing with a constant velocity. In all the cases investigated here as the 3D diffusion, the increase of mitotic activity at the border, nonlinear laws for the uptake of morphogens or for the mobility coefficient, a planar front exists above a critical threshold for the mobility coefficient but it becomes unstable just above the threshold at long wavelengths due to the existence of a Goldstone mode. This explains why sparsely bacteria exhibit dendritic patterns experimentally in opposition to other colonies such as biofilms and epithelia which are more compact. In the most unstable situation, where all the laws: diffusion, chemotaxis driving and chemoattractant uptake are linear, we show also that the system can recover a dynamic stability. A second threshold for the mobility exists which has a lower value as the ratio between diffusion coefficients decreases. Within the framework of this model where the biomass is treated mainly as a viscous and diffusive fluid, we show that the multiplicity of independent parameters in real biologic experimental set-up may explain varieties of observed patterns.
Anisotropic growth shapes intestinal tissues during embryogenesis - Ben Amar, Martine and Jia, Fei

Abstract : Embryogenesis offers a real laboratory for pattern formation, buckling, and postbuckling induced by growth of soft tissues. Each part of our body is structured in multiple adjacent layers: the skin, the brain, and the interior of organs. Each layer has a complex biological composition presenting different elasticity. Generated during fetal life, these layers will experience growth and remodeling in the early postfertilization stages. Here, we focus on a herringbone pattern occurring in fetal intestinal tissues. Common to many mammalians, this instability is a precursor of the villi, finger-like projections into the lumen. For avians (chicks' and turkeys' embryos), it has been shown that, a few days after fertilization, the mucosal epithelium of the duodenum is smooth, and then folds emerge, which present 2 d later a pronounced zigzag instability. Many debates and biological studies are devoted to this specific morphology, which regulates the cell renewal in the intestine. After reviewing experimental results about duodenum morphogenesis, we show that a model based on simplified hypothesis for the growth of the mesenchyme can explain buckling and postbuckling instabilities. Being completely analytical, it is based on biaxial compressive stresses due to differential growth between layers and it predicts quantitatively the morphological changes. The growth anisotropy increasing with time, the competition between folds and zigzags, is proved to occur as a secondary instability. The model is compared with available experimental data on chick's duodenum and can be applied to other intestinal tissues, the zigzag being a common and spectacular microstructural pattern of intestine embryogenesis.