laboratoire de physique statistique
laboratoire de physique statistique




Six Homeoproteins and a Iinc-RNA at the Fast MYH Locus Lock Fast Myofiber Terminal Phenotype - Sakakibara, Iori and Santolini, Marc and Ferry, Arnaud and Hakim, Vincent and Maire, Pascal

Abstract : Thousands of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are encoded by the mammalian genome. However, the function of most of these lincRNAs has not been identified in vivo. Here, we demonstrate a role for a novel lincRNA, linc-MYH, in adult fast-type myofiber specialization. Fast myosin heavy chain (MYH) genes and linc-MYH share a common enhancer, located in the fast MYH gene locus and regulated by Six1 homeoproteins. linc-MYH in nuclei of fast-type myofibers prevents slow-type and enhances fast-type gene expression. Functional fast-sarcomeric unit formation is achieved by the coordinate expression of fast MYHs and linc-MYH, under the control of a common Six-bound enhancer.
Six Homeoproteins Directly Activate Myod Expression in the Gene Regulatory Networks That Control Early Myogenesis - Relaix, Frederic and Demignon, Josiane and Laclef, Christine and Pujol, Julien and Santolini, Marc and Niro, Claire and Lagha, Mounia and Rocancourt, Didier and Buckingham, Margaret and Maire, Pascal

Abstract : In mammals, several genetic pathways have been characterized that govern engagement of multipotent embryonic progenitors into the myogenic program through the control of the key myogenic regulatory gene Myod. Here we demonstrate the involvement of Six homeoproteins. We first targeted into a Pax3 allele a sequence encoding a negative form of Six4 that binds DNA but cannot interact with essential Eya co-factors. The resulting embryos present hypoplasic skeletal muscles and impaired Myod activation in the trunk in the absence of Myf5/Mrf4. At the axial level, we further show that Myod is still expressed in compound Six1/Six4:Pax3 but not in Six1/Six4:Myf5 triple mutant embryos, demonstrating that Six1/4 participates in the Pax3-Myod genetic pathway. Myod expression and head myogenesis is preserved in Six1/Six4:Myf5 triple mutant embryos, illustrating that upstream regulators of Myod in different embryonic territories are distinct. We show that Myod regulatory regions are directly controlled by Six proteins and that, in the absence of Six1 and Six4, Six2 can compensate.
Frail Hypotheses in Evolutionary Biology - Ninio, Jacques
The stochastic edge in adaptive evolution - Brunet, Eric and Rouzine, Igor M. and Wilke, Claus O.
GENETICS 179603-620 (2008)

Abstract : In a recent article, Desai and Fisher proposed that the speed of adaptation in an asexual population is determined by the dynamics of the stochastic edge of the population, that is, by the emergence and subsequent establishment of rare mutants that exceed the fitness of all sequences currently present in the population. Desai and Fisher perform an elaborate stochastic calculation of the mean time tau until a new class of mutants has been established and interpret 1/tau as the speed of adaptation. As they note, however, their calculations are valid only for moderate speeds. This limitation arises from their method to determine T: Desai and Fisher back extrapolate the value of T from the best-fit class's exponential growth at infinite time. This approach is not valid when the population adapts rapidly, because in this case the best-fit class grows nonexponentially during the relevant time interval. Here, we substantially extend Desai and Fisher's analysis of the stochastic edge. We show that we can apply Desai and Fisher's method to high speeds by either exponentially back extrapolating from finite time or using a nonexponential back extrapolation. Our results are compatible with predictions made using a different analytical approach (Rouzine et al.) and agree well with numerical simulations.