DOI

1

Diagrammatic Monte Carlo study of the acoustic and the Bose-Einstein condensate polaron - Vlietinck, Jonas and Casteels, Wim and Van Houcke, Kris and Tempere, Jacques and Ryckebusch, Jan and Devreese, Jozef T.

NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS 17, (2015)

Abstract : We consider two large polaron systems that are described by a Frohlich type of Hamiltonian, namely the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) polaron in the continuum and the acoustic polaron in a solid. We present ground-state energies of these two systems calculated with the Diagrammatic Monte Carlo (DiagMC) method and with a Feynman all-coupling approach. The DiagMC method evaluates up to very high order a diagrammatic series for the polaron's self-energy. The Feynman all-coupling approach is a variational method that has been used for a wide range of polaronic problems. For the acoustic and BEC polaron both methods provide remarkably similar non-renormalized ground-state energies that are obtained after introducing a finite momentum cutoff. For the renormalized ground-state energies of the BEC polaron, there are relatively large discrepancies between the DiagMC and the Feynman predictions. These differences can be attributed to the renormalization procedure for the contact interaction.

NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS 17, (2015)

Abstract : We consider two large polaron systems that are described by a Frohlich type of Hamiltonian, namely the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) polaron in the continuum and the acoustic polaron in a solid. We present ground-state energies of these two systems calculated with the Diagrammatic Monte Carlo (DiagMC) method and with a Feynman all-coupling approach. The DiagMC method evaluates up to very high order a diagrammatic series for the polaron's self-energy. The Feynman all-coupling approach is a variational method that has been used for a wide range of polaronic problems. For the acoustic and BEC polaron both methods provide remarkably similar non-renormalized ground-state energies that are obtained after introducing a finite momentum cutoff. For the renormalized ground-state energies of the BEC polaron, there are relatively large discrepancies between the DiagMC and the Feynman predictions. These differences can be attributed to the renormalization procedure for the contact interaction.

DOI

2

Turbulence in the two-dimensional Fourier-truncated Gross-Pitaevskii equation - Shukla, Vishwanath and Brachet, Marc and Pandit, Rahul

NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS 15, (2013)

Abstract : We undertake a systematic, direct numerical simulation of the twodimensional, Fourier-truncated, Gross-Pitaevskii equation to study the turbulent evolutions of its solutions for a variety of initial conditions and a wide range of parameters. We find that the time evolution of this system can be classified into four regimes with qualitatively different statistical properties. Firstly, there are transients that depend on the initial conditions. In the second regime, powerlaw scaling regions, in the energy and the occupation-number spectra, appear and start to develop; the exponents of these power laws and the extents of the scaling regions change with time and depend on the initial condition. In the third regime, the spectra drop rapidly for modes with wave numbers k > kc and partial thermalization takes place for modes with k < kc; the self-truncation wave number kc(t) depends on the initial conditions and it grows either as a power of t or as log t. Finally, in the fourth regime, complete thermalization is achieved and, if we account for finite-size effects carefully, correlation functions and spectra are consistent with their nontrivial Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless forms. Our work is a natural generalization of recent studies of thermalization in the Euler and other hydrodynamical equations; it combines ideas from fluid dynamics and turbulence, on the one hand, and equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics on the other.

NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS 15, (2013)

Abstract : We undertake a systematic, direct numerical simulation of the twodimensional, Fourier-truncated, Gross-Pitaevskii equation to study the turbulent evolutions of its solutions for a variety of initial conditions and a wide range of parameters. We find that the time evolution of this system can be classified into four regimes with qualitatively different statistical properties. Firstly, there are transients that depend on the initial conditions. In the second regime, powerlaw scaling regions, in the energy and the occupation-number spectra, appear and start to develop; the exponents of these power laws and the extents of the scaling regions change with time and depend on the initial condition. In the third regime, the spectra drop rapidly for modes with wave numbers k > kc and partial thermalization takes place for modes with k < kc; the self-truncation wave number kc(t) depends on the initial conditions and it grows either as a power of t or as log t. Finally, in the fourth regime, complete thermalization is achieved and, if we account for finite-size effects carefully, correlation functions and spectra are consistent with their nontrivial Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless forms. Our work is a natural generalization of recent studies of thermalization in the Euler and other hydrodynamical equations; it combines ideas from fluid dynamics and turbulence, on the one hand, and equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics on the other.

DOI

3

Petal shapes of sympetalous flowers: the interplay between growth, geometry and elasticity - Ben Amar, Martine and Mueller, Martin Michael and Trejo, Miguel

NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS 14, (2012)

Abstract : The growth of a thin elastic sheet imposes constraints on its geometry such as its Gaussian curvature KG. In this paper, we construct the shapes of sympetalous bell-shaped flowers with a constant Gaussian curvature. Minimizing the bending energies of both the petal and the veins, we are able to predict quantitatively the global shape of these flowers. We discuss two toy problems where the Gaussian curvature is either negative or positive. In the former case, the axisymmetric pseudosphere turns out to mimic the correct shape before edge curling; in the latter case, singularities of the mathematical surface coincide with strong veins. Using a variational minimization of the elastic energy, we find that the optimal number for the veins is either four, five or six, a number that is deceptively close to the statistics on real flowers in nature.

NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS 14, (2012)

Abstract : The growth of a thin elastic sheet imposes constraints on its geometry such as its Gaussian curvature KG. In this paper, we construct the shapes of sympetalous bell-shaped flowers with a constant Gaussian curvature. Minimizing the bending energies of both the petal and the veins, we are able to predict quantitatively the global shape of these flowers. We discuss two toy problems where the Gaussian curvature is either negative or positive. In the former case, the axisymmetric pseudosphere turns out to mimic the correct shape before edge curling; in the latter case, singularities of the mathematical surface coincide with strong veins. Using a variational minimization of the elastic energy, we find that the optimal number for the veins is either four, five or six, a number that is deceptively close to the statistics on real flowers in nature.

DOI

4

Emergence of microstructural patterns in skin cancer: a phase separation analysis in a binary mixture - Chatelain, C. and Balois, T. and Ciarletta, P. and Ben Amar, M.

NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS 13, (2011)

Abstract : Clinical diagnosis of skin cancers is based on several morphological criteria, among which is the presence of microstructures (e.g. dots and nests) sparsely distributed within the tumour lesion. In this study, we demonstrate that these patterns might originate from a phase separation process. In the absence of cellular proliferation, in fact, a binary mixture model, which is used to represent the mechanical behaviour of skin cancers, contains a cell-cell adhesion parameter that leads to a governing equation of the Cahn-Hilliard type. Taking into account a reaction-diffusion coupling between nutrient consumption and cellular proliferation, we show, with both analytical and numerical investigations, that two-phase models may undergo a spinodal decomposition even when considering mass exchanges between the phases. The cell-nutrient interaction defines a typical diffusive length in the problem, which is found to control the saturation of a growing separated domain, thus stabilizing the microstructural pattern. The distribution and evolution of such emerging cluster morphologies, as predicted by our model, are successfully compared to the clinical observation of microstructural patterns in tumour lesions.

NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS 13, (2011)

Abstract : Clinical diagnosis of skin cancers is based on several morphological criteria, among which is the presence of microstructures (e.g. dots and nests) sparsely distributed within the tumour lesion. In this study, we demonstrate that these patterns might originate from a phase separation process. In the absence of cellular proliferation, in fact, a binary mixture model, which is used to represent the mechanical behaviour of skin cancers, contains a cell-cell adhesion parameter that leads to a governing equation of the Cahn-Hilliard type. Taking into account a reaction-diffusion coupling between nutrient consumption and cellular proliferation, we show, with both analytical and numerical investigations, that two-phase models may undergo a spinodal decomposition even when considering mass exchanges between the phases. The cell-nutrient interaction defines a typical diffusive length in the problem, which is found to control the saturation of a growing separated domain, thus stabilizing the microstructural pattern. The distribution and evolution of such emerging cluster morphologies, as predicted by our model, are successfully compared to the clinical observation of microstructural patterns in tumour lesions.