laboratoire de physique statistique
laboratoire de physique statistique




FRAP to Characterize Molecular Diffusion and Interaction in Various Membrane Environments - Pincet, Frederic and Adrien, Vladimir and Yang, Rong and Delacotte, Jerome and Rothman, James E. and Urbach, Wladimir and Tareste, David
PLOS ONE 11 (2016)

Abstract : Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) is a standard method used to study the dynamics of lipids and proteins in artificial and cellular membrane systems. The advent of confocal microscopy two decades ago has made quantitative FRAP easily available to most laboratories. Usually, a single bleaching pattern/area is used and the corresponding recovery time is assumed to directly provide a diffusion coefficient, although this is only true in the case of unrestricted Brownian motion. Here, we propose some general guidelines to perform FRAP experiments under a confocal microscope with different bleaching patterns and area, allowing the experimentalist to establish whether the molecules undergo Brownian motion (free diffusion) or whether they have restricted or directed movements. Using in silico simulations of FRAP measurements, we further indicate the data acquisition criteria that have to be verified in order to obtain accurate values for the diffusion coefficient and to be able to distinguish between different diffusive species. Using this approach, we compare the behavior of lipids in three different membrane platforms (supported lipid bilayers, giant liposomes and sponge phases), and we demonstrate that FRAP measurements are consistent with results obtained using other techniques such as Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) or Single Particle Tracking (SPT). Finally, we apply this method to show that the presence of the synaptic protein Munc 18-1 inhibits the interaction between the synaptic vesicle SNARE protein, VAMP2, and its partner from the plasma membrane, Syn1A.
The Energy of COPI for Budding Membranes - Thiam, Abdou Rachid and Pincet, Frederic
PLOS ONE 10 (2015)

Abstract : As a major actor of cellular trafficking, COPI coat proteins assemble on membranes and locally bend them to bud 60 nm-size coated particles. Budding requires the energy of the coat assembly to overcome the one necessary to deform the membrane which primarily depends on the bending modulus and surface tension, gamma. Using a COPI-induced oil nano-droplet formation approach, we modulated the budding of nanodroplets using various amounts and types of surfactant. We found a Heaviside-like dependence between the budding efficiency and.: budding was only dependent on. and occurred beneath 1.3 mN/m. With the sole contribution of. to the membrane deformation energy, we assessed that COPI supplies similar to 1500 k(B)T for budding particles from membranes, which is consistent with common membrane deformation energies. Our results highlight how a simple remodeling of the composition of membranes could mechanically modulate budding in cells.
Are the SSB-Interacting Proteins RecO, RecG, PriA and the DnaB-Interacting Protein Rep Bound to Progressing Replication Forks in Escherichia coli? - Bentchikou, Esma and Chagneau, Carine and Long, Emilie and Matelot, Melody and Allemand, Jean-Francois and Michel, Benedicte
PLOS ONE 10 (2015)

Abstract : In all organisms several enzymes that are needed upon replication impediment are targeted to replication forks by interaction with a replication protein. In most cases these proteins interact with the polymerase clamp or with single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSB). In Escherichia coli an accessory replicative helicase was also shown to interact with the DnaB replicative helicase. Here we have used cytological observation of Venus fluorescent fusion proteins expressed from their endogenous loci in live E. coli cells to determine whether DNA repair and replication restart proteins that interact with a replication protein travel with replication forks. A custom-made microscope that detects active replisome molecules provided that they are present in at least three copies was used. Neither the recombination proteins RecO and RecG, nor the replication accessory helicase Rep are detected specifically in replicating cells in our assay, indicating that either they are not present at progressing replication forks or they are present in less than three copies. The Venus-PriA fusion protein formed foci even in the absence of replication forks, which prevented us from reaching a conclusion.
A General Pairwise Interaction Model Provides an Accurate Description of In Vivo Transcription Factor Binding Sites - Santolini, Marc and Mora, Thierry and Hakim, Vincent
PLOS ONE 9 (2014)

Abstract : The identification of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) on genomic DNA is of crucial importance for understanding and predicting regulatory elements in gene networks. TFBS motifs are commonly described by Position Weight Matrices (PWMs), in which each DNA base pair contributes independently to the transcription factor (TF) binding. However, this description ignores correlations between nucleotides at different positions, and is generally inaccurate: analysing fly and mouse in vivo ChIPseq data, we show that in most cases the PWM model fails to reproduce the observed statistics of TFBSs. To overcome this issue, we introduce the pairwise interaction model (PIM), a generalization of the PWM model. The model is based on the principle of maximum entropy and explicitly describes pairwise correlations between nucleotides at different positions, while being otherwise as unconstrained as possible. It is mathematically equivalent to considering a TF-DNA binding energy that depends additively on each nucleotide identity at all positions in the TFBS, like the PWM model, but also additively on pairs of nucleotides. We find that the PIM significantly improves over the PWM model, and even provides an optimal description of TFBS statistics within statistical noise. The PIM generalizes previous approaches to interdependent positions: it accounts for co-variation of two or more base pairs, and predicts secondary motifs, while outperforming multiple-motif models consisting of mixtures of PWMs. We analyse the structure of pairwise interactions between nucleotides, and find that they are sparse and dominantly located between consecutive base pairs in the flanking region of TFBS. Nonetheless, interactions between pairs of non-consecutive nucleotides are found to play a significant role in the obtained accurate description of TFBS statistics. The PIM is computationally tractable, and provides a general framework that should be useful for describing and predicting TFBSs beyond PWMs.
Homotypic and Heterotypic Adhesion Induced by Odorant Receptors and the beta 2-Adrenergic Receptor - Richard, Marion and Jamet, Sophie and Fouquet, Coralie and Dubacq, Caroline and Boggetto, Nicole and Pincet, Frederic and Gourier, Christine and Trembleau, Alain
PLOS ONE 8 (2013)

Abstract : In the mouse olfactory system regulated expression of a large family of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs), the Odorant Receptors (ORs), provides each sensory neuron with a single OR identity. In the wiring of the olfactory sensory neuron projections, a complex axon sorting process ensures the segregation of >1,000 subpopulations of axons of the same OR identity into homogeneously innervated glomeruli. ORs are critical determinants in axon sorting, and their presence on olfactory axons raises the intriguing possibility that they may participate in axonal wiring through direct or indirect trans-interactions mediating adhesion or repulsion between axons. In the present work, we used a biophysical assay to test the capacity of ORs to induce adhesion of cell doublets overexpressing these receptors. We also tested the beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor, a non-OR GPCR known to recapitulate the functions of ORs in olfactory axon sorting. We report here the first evidence for homo-and heterotypic adhesion between cells overexpressing the ORs MOR256-17 or M71, supporting the hypothesis that ORs may contribute to olfactory axon sorting by mediating differential adhesion between axons.
ATP-Independent Cooperative Binding of Yeast Isw1a to Bare and Nucleosomal DNA - De Cian, Anne and Praly, Elise and Ding, Fangyuan and Singh, Vijender and Lavelle, Christophe and Le Cam, Eric and Croquette, Vincent and Pietrement, Olivier and Bensimon, David
PLOS ONE 7 (2012)

Abstract : Among chromatin remodeling factors, the ISWI family displays a nucleosome-enhanced ATPase activity coupled to DNA translocation. While these enzymes are known to bind to DNA, their activity has not been fully characterized. Here we use TEM imaging and single molecule manipulation to investigate the interaction between DNA and yeast Isw1a. We show that Isw1a displays a highly cooperative ATP-independent binding to and bridging between DNA segments. Under appropriate tension, rare single nucleation events can sometimes be observed and loop DNA with a regular step. These nucleation events are often followed by binding of successive complexes bridging between nearby DNA segments in a zipper-like fashion, as confirmed by TEM observations. On nucleosomal substrates, we show that the specific ATP-dependent remodeling activity occurs in the context of cooperative Isw1a complexes bridging extranucleosomal DNA. Our results are interpreted in the context of the recently published partial structure of Isw1a and support its acting as a ``protein ruler'' (with possibly more than one tick).
Tracking Membrane Protein Association in Model Membranes - Reffay, Myriam and Gambin, Yann and Benabdelhak, Houssain and Phan, Gilles and Taulier, Nicolas and Ducruix, Arnaud and Hodges, Robert S. and Urbach, Wladimir
PLOS ONE 4 (2009)

Abstract : Membrane proteins are essential in the exchange processes of cells. In spite of great breakthrough in soluble proteins studies, membrane proteins structures, functions and interactions are still a challenge because of the difficulties related to their hydrophobic properties. Most of the experiments are performed with detergent-solubilized membrane proteins. However widely used micellar systems are far from the biological two-dimensions membrane. The development of new biomimetic membrane systems is fundamental to tackle this issue. We present an original approach that combines the Fluorescence Recovery After fringe Pattern Photobleaching technique and the use of a versatile sponge phase that makes it possible to extract crucial informations about interactions between membrane proteins embedded in the bilayers of a sponge phase. The clear advantage lies in the ability to adjust at will the spacing between two adjacent bilayers. When the membranes are far apart, the only possible interactions occur laterally between proteins embedded within the same bilayer, whereas when membranes get closer to each other, interactions between proteins embedded in facing membranes may occur as well. After validating our approach on the streptavidin-biotinylated peptide complex, we study the interactions between two membrane proteins, MexA and OprM, from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa efflux pump. The mode of interaction, the size of the protein complex and its potential stoichiometry are determined. In particular, we demonstrate that: MexA is effectively embedded in the bilayer; MexA and OprM do not interact laterally but can form a complex if they are embedded in opposite bilayers; the population of bound proteins is at its maximum for bilayers separated by a distance of about 200 angstrom, which is the periplasmic thickness of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We also show that the MexA-OprM association is enhanced when the position and orientation of the protein is restricted by the bilayers. We extract a stoichiometry for the complex that exhibits a strong pH dependance: from 2 to 6 MexA per OprM trimer when the pH decreases from 7.5 to 5.5. Our technique allows to study membrane protein associations in a membrane environment. It provides some challenging information about complexes such as geometry and stoichiometry.
Molecular and Sensory Basis of a Food Related Two-State Behavior in C. elegans - Ben Arous, Juliette and Laffont, Sophie and Chatenay, Didier
PLOS ONE 4 (2009)

Abstract : Most animals display multiple behavioral states and control the time allocation to each of their activity phases depending on their environment. Here we develop a new quantitative method to analyze Caenorhabditis elegans behavioral states. We show that the dwelling and roaming two-state behavior of C. elegans is tightly controlled by the concentration of food in the environment of the animal. Sensory perception through the amphid neurons is necessary to extend roaming phases while internal metabolic perception of food nutritional value is needed to induce dwelling. Our analysis also shows that the proportion of time spent in each state is modulated by past nutritional experiences of the animal. This two-state behavior is regulated through serotonin as well as insulin and TGF-beta signaling pathways. We propose a model where food nutritional value is assessed through internal metabolic signaling. Biogenic amines signaling could allow the worm to adapt to fast changes in the environment when peptide transcriptional pathways may mediate slower adaptive changes.
Membrane Recruitment of Scaffold Proteins Drives Specific Signaling - Pincet, Frederic
PLOS ONE 2 (2007)

Abstract : Cells must give the right response to each stimulus they receive. Scaffolding, a signaling process mediated by scaffold proteins, participates in the decoding of the cues by specifically directing signal transduction. The aim of this paper is to describe the molecular mechanisms of scaffolding, i.e. the principles by which scaffold proteins drive a specific response of the cell. Since similar scaffold proteins are found in many species, they evolved according to the purpose of each organism. This means they require adaptability. In the usual description of the mechanisms of scaffolding, scaffold proteins are considered as reactors where molecules involved in a cascade of reactions are simultaneously bound with the right orientation to meet and interact. This description is not realistic: (i) it is not verified by experiments and (ii) timing and orientation constraints make it complex which seems to contradict the required adaptability. A scaffold protein, Ste5, is used in the MAPK pathway of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae for the cell to provide a specific response to stimuli. The massive amount of data available for this pathway makes it ideal to investigate the actual mechanisms of scaffolding. Here, a complete treatment of the chemical reactions allows the computation of the distributions of all the proteins involved in the MAPK pathway when the cell receives various cues. These distributions are compared to several experimental results. It turns out that the molecular mechanisms of scaffolding are much simpler and more adaptable than previously thought in the reactor model. Scaffold proteins bind only one molecule at a time. Then, their membrane recruitment automatically drives specific, amplified and localized signal transductions. The mechanisms presented here, which explain how the membrane recruitment of a protein can produce a drastic change in the activity of cells, are generic and may be commonly used in many biological processes.