Dress Krauth 1995

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C. Dress, W. Krauth Cluster Algorithm for hard spheres and related systems Journal of Physics A: Math. Gen. 28, L597 (1995)

Abstract: In this paper, we present a cluster algorithm for the simulation of hard spheres and related systems. In this algorithm, a copy of the configuration is rotated with respect to a randomly chosen pivot point. The two systems are then superposed, and clusters of overlapping spheres in the joint system are isolated. Each of these clusters can be flipped independently, a process which generates non-local moves in the original configuration. A generalization of this algorithm (which works perfectly well at small density) can be successfully made to work at densities around the solid-liquid transition point in the two-dimensional hard-sphere system.

Electronic version (arXiv)

Further insights

In the original version, we formulated the algorithm as an exchange between two copies of a configuration. The "pocket" version of the algorithm, that I also used, with R. Moessner, in a 2003 paper on dimer models, is much easier. This pocket version that is implemented in the below Python program.

Python version of the cluster algorithm

## PROGRAM : pocket_disks.py
## PURPOSE : implement SMAC algorithm 2.18 (hard-sphere-cluster) 
##           for four disks in a square of sides 1
## LANGUAGE: Python 2.5
from random import uniform as ran, choice
def box_it(x):
   if x[0] < 0 : x[0]=x[0]+1
   if x[1] < 0 : x[1]=x[1]+1
   return x
def dist(x,y):
   d_x= abs(x[0]-y[0])%1
   d_x = min(d_x,1-d_x)
   d_y= abs(x[1]-y[1])%1
   d_y = min(d_y,1-d_y)
   return  d_x**2 + d_y**2
def T(x,Pivot):
   return x
# Program starts here
for iter in range(10000):
   a = choice(Others)
   Pocket = [a]
   while Pocket != []:
      a = choice(Pocket)
      a = T(a,Pivot)
      for b in Others[:]:  # "Others[:]" is a copy of "Others"
         if dist(a,b) < 4*sigma_sq:
print Others, ' ending config '
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